Whether we are talking about buying a dental unit, renovating or building a dental practice, it is important to know that any changes or additions made to such a space influence its appearance and dynamics.
In today’s article we will discuss the installation of a dental unit. When installing such a device, we need to consider not only the dynamics and design of the space: it is important to know, in broad terms, what it is, how to identify the connections of a unit, how to position a unit, etc.
How do we identify the connections of a unit?
in the case of older models, the connections are under the block containing the spittoon
in newer models, the connections are located under the patient’s seat
there are also exceptions where the connections come at a greater distance from the unit and then a special connection box is fitted
For the most accurate positioning of where the pipes and cables for the unit will come out of the floor, do not forget to ask your supplier for the necessary information
As a guideline, the connections should come out of the floor to the right of the patient’s calf when the patient is sitting in the chair.
What are the dependencies of a unit?
Before you pour the screed, lay the tiles or the floor, don’t forget the other aspects that influence the smooth running of a dental unit: water, compressed air, electricity, sewage, vacuum pipe and pump control. The recommended sizes for these are as follows:
1. Water – copper or PVC pipe, fitted with a tap with ½” internal thread;
2. Air – copper or PVC pipe, fitted with a ½” internal thread tap or 8″ pneumatic hose (6 ID, 8 OD) withstanding 12 bar pressure;
3. Power – 2.5 mm grounded power cable;
4. Sewer – PVC sewer pipe with a minimum diameter of 32, preferably 40;
In the case of units prepared for surgical suction with a vacuum pump you will also need:
5. Vacuum pipe – PVC sewer pipe with a diameter of 32 that will connect the vacuum pump to the unit;
Attention! Next to the vacuum pump there will have to be sewage
6. Pump control – 2-wire cable connecting the unit to the vacuum pump.
The tap on the water pipe should be mounted as close to the floor as possible.
If the water pipe is too long or the rest of the cables are too twisted, the cover will not fit. Therefore, all pipes and cables coming out of the floor must be framed in a maximum 20X20 cm grid.
If you want to fix the unit in the floor (often not necessary) you need an accurate drawing of the pipes running through it. In this way, you can avoid any damage or cracking of the pipes when inserting the screws.
“The ‘life’ of your turbine/pipe is influenced by a lot of factors. Each of these can become the cause of its failure. Very important is the maintenance of dental turbines and handpieces. This is explained by the fact that the rotational speed of the turbine rotor is about 300,000 revolutions per minute, i.e. about 5000 per second.
1. Preparing turbines/handpieces for work
Some information on how to properly lubricate a dental turbine.
It is mandatory to lubricate the turbine or handpiece before first use!
Adjust the air pressure according to the instructions, i.e. 0.25- 0.30 MPa. Increased pressure increases the rotational speed of the rotor but leads to premature damage of the rotor bearings.
Check the quality of the air: it must be free of water or oil. To do this – disconnect the water flow and turn on the working air only. In a few seconds project the air jet onto a mirror from 3-4 cm. If mist or droplets of water or oil appear on the surface of the mirror – the air contains mixtures
Check the air filter and condensate drain pan or ask your service technician for help.
Mount the turbine and tighten the threads tightly to avoid loss of pressure.
The diameter of the turbine cutter chuck must be a maximum of 1.6mm and a minimum of 1.59mm or 2.35mm for handpieces. Inconsistencies can lead to damage to the clamp (the system that holds the cutter). If during the work it is observed that the milling cutter is twisting in the collet or after removing the milling cutter on the chuck a milling ring is observed, it can be concluded that the milling cutter is smaller than 1.59mm in diameter and must be discarded. Only use cutters that are active. Milling cutters require more pressure for preparation, which overloads the bearings. Avoid pressing the push-button or attempting to change the cutter before the rotor comes to a complete stop.
To avoid premature damage to the clamp, it is recommended to keep the turbine with the milling cutter in it.
2. Cleaning and lubrication of turbine/handpieces.
Maintenance of these parts must be carried out in strict accordance with the instructions. General considerations will be set out below, compliance with which will not lead to premature deterioration.
Lubrication is carried out by oil spray that automatically comes into the working air duct (the large one – on 2-hole Borden turbines or the medium one on 4- and 6-hole Midwest or fibre-optic turbines)
The spray is sprayed under the presuine.
On push-button turbines/parts it is also recommended to lubricate through the cutter hole to ensure efficient operation of the push-button clamp and mechanism.
Lubrication should be done at least once a day or recommended at least twice a day (12-hour working regime) and always before sterilisation.
Only those plugs/adapters that are suitable for the turbine model are used for lubrication. For turbines with a quick coupling, adapters in the shape of the coupling are used.
The turbine head is wrapped in a clean napkin to avoid splashing oil on surrounding surfaces. The spray is applied to the working air vent or by using the respective adapters. Under pressure the oil passes through the turbine’s channels and rotor, cleaning them and greasing the rotor bearings. Check the oil out. If the napkin contains black spots or other particles, the spray should be repeated until these impurities no longer appear and the oil is clean.
After the turbine/handpiece has been lubricated it is turned upside down so that the excess oil and impurities in it drain out.
If the turbine/handpiece is to be sterilised, after lubrication, it is fitted to the unit and turned on for about 5 seconds to remove excess oil that may coagulate due to the high temperature.
Most turbines are sterilised at 134ºC in an autoclave, minimum 3.5min. However, the instructions may indicate other methods to be followed.
After sterilization, the turbine must be lubricated!
The turbine can be used or kept sterile if it has been peeled.
-Oil droplets may enter the motor during the installation of the handpiece on the electric micromotor. To prevent this from happening, wipe the piece with a dry napkin, initially mount it upside down, and turn it on for a few seconds to remove excess oil.
3.Maintenance and lubrication of pneumatic micromotors
Lubricate once a week, preferably with pressure spray, in the working air hole.